Sonja Y. Hess, Ph.D.

Sonja Hess
  • Research Nutritionist, Department of Nutrition
3147 Meyer
Bio
Education
  • MSc, Food Science Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland, 1998
  • Ph.D. Human Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland, 2003
Research Interests

Dr. Hess’ research interests involve the design, implementation and evaluation of programs to control micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in low-income countries, and related issues of nutrient bioavailability, nutrient-nutrient interactions and nutritional assessment. The research program is generally carried out in the context of community-based intervention trials, using an efficacy or effectiveness study design.

Selected Publications

Hess SY, Smith TJ, Fischer PR, Trehan I, Hiffler L, Arnold CD, Sitthideth D, Tancredi DJ, Schick MA, Yeh J, Stein-Wexler R, McBeth CN, Tan X, Nhiacha K, Kounnavong S. Establishing a case definition of thiamine responsive disorders among infants and young children in Lao PDR: protocol for a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2020;10:e036539.

Kewcharoenwong C, Schuster GU, Wessells KR, Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Kounnavong S, Brown KH, Hess SY, Samer W, Tussakhon I, Peerson JM, Lertmemongkolchai G, Stephensen. Daily Preventive Zinc Supplementation Decreases Lymphocyte and Eosinophil Concentrations in Rural Laotian Children from Communities with a High Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. CB. J Nutr. 2020 Aug 1;150(8):2204-2213. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa037.

Hinnouho GM, Wessells KR, Barffour MA, Sayasone S, Arnold CD, Kounnavong S, Hess SY. Impact of Different Strategies for Delivering Supplemental Zinc on Selected Fecal Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction among Young Laotian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct;103(4):1416-1426. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0106. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Barffour MA, Hinnouho GM, Wessells KR, Kounnavong S, Ratsavong K, Sitthideth D, Bounheuang B, Sengnam K, Chanhthavong B, Arnold CD, Brown KH, Larson CP, Hess SY. Effects of therapeutic zinc supplementation for diarrhea and two preventive zinc supplementation regimens on the incidence and duration of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections in rural Laotian children: A randomized controlled trial. J Glob Health. 2020 Jun;10(1):010424. doi: 10.7189/jogh.10.010424.

McDonald CM, Suchdev PS, Krebs NF, Hess SY, Wessells KR, Ismaily S, Rahman S, Wieringa FT, Williams AM, Brown KH, King JC. Adjusting plasma or serum zinc concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 1;111(4):927-937. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz304.

Kingchaiyaphum B, Sanchaisuriya K, Fucharoen G, Chaibunruang A, Hess SY, Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Wessells KR, Kounnavong S, Fucharoen S. Hemoglobins F, A2, and E levels in Laotian children aged 6-23 months with Hb E disorders: Effect of age, sex, and thalassemia types. Int J Lab Hematol. 2020 Jun;42(3):277-283. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.13164. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Hess SY, Smith TJ, Fischer PR, Trehan I, Hiffler L, Arnold CD, Sitthideth D, Tancredi DJ, Schick MA, Yeh J, Stein-Wexler R, McBeth CN, Tan X, Nhiacha K, Kounnavong S. Establishing a case definition of thiamine responsive disorders among infants and young children in Lao PDR: protocol for a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2020 Feb 13;10(2):e036539. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036539.

Ouédraogo CT, Wessells KR, Young RR, Faye MT, Hess SY. Prevalence and determinants of gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Niger. Matern Child Nutr 2020 Jan;16(1):e12887. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12887. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Ouedraogo CT, Wessells KR, Young RR, Bamba IF, Faye MT, Banda N, Hess SY. The mixed effects of a package of multilevel interventions on the health and care of pregnant women in Zinder, Niger. BMJ Glob Health. 2019 Dec 10;4(6):e001200. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001200. eCollection 2019.

Hess SY, Wessells KR, Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Sanchaisuriya K, Arnold CD, Brown KH, Larson CP, Fucharoen S, Kounnavong S. Iron status and inherited haemoglobin disorders modify the effects of micronutrient powders on linear growth and morbidity among young Lao children in a double-blind randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2019 Oct 28;122(8):895-909. doi: 10.1017/S0007114519001715.

Karakochuk CD, Hess SY, Moorthy D, Namaste S, Parker ME, Rappaport AI, Wegmüller R, Dary O; HEmoglobin MEasurement (HEME) Working Group. Measurement and interpretation of hemoglobin concentration in clinical and field settings: a narrative review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019 Aug;1450(1):126-146. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14003. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

McLain AC, Frongillo EA, Hess SY, Piwoz EG. Comparison of Methods Used to Estimate the Global Burden of Disease Related to Undernutrition and Suboptimal Breastfeeding. Adv Nutr 2019;10(3):380-90. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy094.

Prado, EL, Yakes Jimenez, E, Vosti, SA, Stewart, RC, Stewart, CP, Somé, JW, Pulakka, A,  Ouédraogo, JB, Okronipa, H, Ocansey, E, Oaks, BM, Maleta, D, Lartey, A, Kortekangas, E, Hess, SY, Brown, KH, Bendabenda, J, Ashorn, U, Ashorn, P. Arimond, M, Adu-Afarwuah, S, Abbeddou, S, and Dewey, KG. Path Analyses of Risk Factors for Linear Growth Faltering in Four Prospective Cohorts of Young Children in Ghana, Malawi, and Burkina Faso. BMJ Glob Health. 2019 Jan 13;4(1):e001155. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001155. eCollection 2019.

Ouedraogo CT, Wessells KR, Young RR, Bamba IF, Faye MT, Banda N, Hess SY. The mixed effects of a package of multilevel interventions on the health and care of pregnant women in Zinder, Niger. BMJ Global Health, 2019, 4 (6) e001200; DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001200.

Hess SY, Wessells KR, Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Sanchaisuriya K, Arnold CD, Brown KH, Larson CP, Fucharoen S, Kounnavong S. Iron Status and Inherited Hemoglobin Disorders Modify the Effects of Micronutrient Powders on Linear Growth and Morbidity among Young Lao Children in a Double-Blind Randomized Trial. British Journal of Nutrition, 2019: 122, 895-909.

Ouédraogo CT, Wessells KR, Young RR, Faye MT, Hess SY. Prevalence and determinants of gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Niger. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2019:e12887. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12887.

Karakochuk CD, Hess SY, Moorthy D, Namaste S, Parker ME, Rappaport AI, Wegmüller R, Dary O on behalf of the HEME Working Group. Measurement and interpretation of hemoglobin concentration in clinical and field settings: A narrative review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2019, 1450: 126-146; doi: 10.1111/nyas.14003.

Wessells KR, Young RR, Ferguson EL, Ouédraogo CT, Faye MT, Hess SY. Assessment of dietary intake and nutrient gaps, and development of food-based recommendations, among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger: An Optifood linear programming analysis. Nutrients, 2019, 11: 72; doi:10.3390/nu11010072.

Hinnouho GM, Bernstein RM, Barffour MA, Arnold CD, Wessells KR, Ratsavong K, Bounheuang B, Kounnavong S, Hess SY. Impact of two forms of daily preventive zinc or therapeutic zinc supplementation for diarrhea on hair cortisol concentrations among rural Laotian children: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 2019, 11: 47; doi:10.3390/nu11010047.

McLain AC, Frongillo EA, Hess SY, Piwoz EG. Comparison of methods used to estimate the global burden of disease conditions related to undernutrition and suboptimal breastfeeding. Advances in Nutrition, 2019, 10: 380-390. doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmy094.

Barffour MA, Hinnouho GM, Kounnavong S, Wessells KR, Ratsavong K, Bounheuang B, Chanhthavong B, Sitthideth D, Sengnam K, Arnold CD, Brown KH, Hess SY. Effects of daily preventive zinc supplementation, daily supplementation with a high-zinc, low-iron containing multiple micronutrient powder or therapeutic zinc supplementation for diarrhea, on physical growth, anemia and zinc and iron status in rural Laotian children: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2018 Dec 21. pii: S0022-3476(18)31610-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.022. [Epub ahead of print]

Hess SY, Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Bounheuang B, Arnold CD, Bell D, Tola H Marts, Kounnavong S. First field test of an innovative, wider tape to measure mid-upper arm circumference. Food Nutr Bull, 2018;39:28-38. 2018 Mar. [PubMed]

Begum K, Ouédraogo CT, Wessells KR, Young RR, Faye MT, Wuehler SE, Hess SY. Prevalence of and factors associated with antenatal care seeking and adherence to recommended iron-folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 2018;14(S1):e12466. 2018 Feb. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Ouédraogo CT, Bamba IT, Wessells KR, Keith N, Faye T, Ndiaye B, Doudou M, Nielsen J. Using formative research to promote antenatal care attendance in Zinder, Niger. Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Sep 19; e12525. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Peerson JM, Becquey E, Abbeddou S, Ouédraogo CT, Somé JW, Yakes Jimenez E, Ouédraogo JB, Vosti SA, Rouamba N, Brown KH. Differing growth responses to nutritional supplements in neighboring health districts of Burkina Faso are likely due to benefits of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS). PLoS One. 2017 Aug 3; 12(8): e0181770. [PubMed]

Hinnouho GM, Barffour MA, Wessells KR, Brown KH, Kounnavong S, Chanhthavong B, Ratsavong K, Kewcharoenwong C, Hess SY. Comparison of haemoglobin assessments by HemoCue® and by automated hematology analysers in young Laotian children. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 2017;0:1-7. 2018 Jun. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Ouédraogo CT, Young RR, Bamba IF, Stinca S, Zimmermann MB, Wessells KR (2016). Urinary iodine concentration identifies pregnant women as moderately iodine deficient yet school-age children as iodine sufficient in rural Niger. Public Health Nutrition, 1-8. 2017 May. [PubMed]

Wessells KR, Ouédraogo CT, Young RR, Faye MT, Brito A, Hess SY (2017). Micronutrient status among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and risk factors associated with deficiency. Nutrients, 9, 430. 2017 Apr 26. [PubMed]

Abbeddou S, Yakes Jimenez E, Somé JW, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH, Hess SY (2017). Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements containing different amounts of zinc increase iron and vitamin A status and reduce anemia prevalence, but do not affect zinc status in young Burkinabe children: a cluster-randomized trial. BMC Pediatrics, 17:46. 2017 Feb 2. [PubMed]

Hess SY (2017). National risk of zinc deficiency as estimated by national surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2017 Jan 1. [PubMed]

Ouédraogo CT, Becquey E, Wilson SE, Prince L, Ouédraogo A, Rouamba N, Ouédraogo JB, Vosti SA, Brown KH, Hess SY. Factors Affecting the Validity of Coverage Survey Reports of Receipt of Vitamin A Supplements During Child Health Days in Southwestern Burkina Faso. Food Nutr Bull. 2016 Sep 7. pii: 0379572116666167. [PubMed]

Becquey E, Ouédraogo CT, Hess SY, Rouamba N, Prince L, Ouédraogo JB, Vosti SA, Brown KH. Comparison of Preventive and Therapeutic Zinc Supplementation in Young Children in Burkina Faso: A Cluster-Randomized, Community-Based Trial. J Nutr. 2016 Aug 3. pii: jn230128. [PubMed]

Prado EL, Abbeddou S, Adu-Afarwuah S, Arimond M, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Brown KH, Hess SY, Lartey A, Maleta K, Ocansey E, Ouédraogo JB, Phuka J, Somé JW, Vosti SA, Yakes Jimenez E, Dewey KG. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi. Pediatrics. 2016 Aug;138(2). pii: e20154698. [PubMed]

Prado EL, Abbeddou S, Yakes Jimenez E, Somé JW, Dewey KG, Brown KH, Hess SY. Effects of an intervention on infant growth and development: evidence for different mechanisms at work. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 May 4. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Abbeddou S, Yakes Jimenez E, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2015 Dec;114(11):1829-37. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Abbeddou S, Jimenez EY, Somé JW, Vosti SA, Ouédraogo ZP, Guissou RM, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements, regardless of their zinc content, increase growth and reduce the prevalence of stunting and wasting in young burkinabe children: a cluster-randomized trial. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 27;10(3):e0122242. [PubMed]

Abbeddou S, Hess SY, Yakes Jimenez E, Somé JW, Vosti SA, Guissou RM, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH (2014). Comparison of methods to assess adherence to small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) and dispersible tablets among young Burkinabé children participating in a community-based intervention trial.  Matern Child Nutr. 2014 Dec 17. [PubMed]

Wessells KR, Hess SY, Ouédraogo ZP, Rouamba N, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH (2014). Asymptomatic malaria infection affects the interpretation of biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status, even after adjusting for systemic inflammation, but does not affect plasma zinc concentrations among young children in Burkina Faso. J Nutr. 2014 Dec;144(12):2050-8. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Brown KH, Sablah M, Engle-Stone R, Aaron GJ, Baker SK (2013). Results of Fortification Rapid Assessment Tool (FRAT) surveys in sub-Saharan Africa and suggestions for future modifications of the survey instrument. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 34:21-38.[PubMed]

Wessells KR, Hess SY, Rouamba N, Ouédraogo ZP, Kellogg M, Goto R, Duggan C, Ouédraogo JB, Brown KH (2013). Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Sep;57(3):348-55. [PubMed]

Brown KH, Hess SY, Vosti SA, Baker SK (2013). Comparisons of the estimated cost-effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic zinc supplementation strategies for reducing child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Nutrition Bulletin, 34:199-214. [PubMed]

Wilson SE, Ouédraogo CT, Prince L, Ouédraogo A, Hess SY, Rouamba N, Ouédraogo JB, Vosti SA, Brown KH (2012). Caregiver recognition of childhood diarrhea, care seeking behaviors and home treatment practices in rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey. PLOS ONE, 7(3):e33273 (pp 1-8). [PubMed]

Hess SY, Bado L, Aaron GJ, Ouedraogo JB, Zeilani M, Brown KH (2011) Acceptability of zinc-fortified, lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) prepared for young children in Burkina Faso. Maternal and Child Nutrition 7, 357-367. [PubMed]

Wuehler SE, Hess SY, Brown KH (2011) Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition activities in the Sahel - Executive summary. Maternal and Child Nutrition 7, 1-5. [PubMed]

Wuehler SE, Hess SY, Brown KH (2011) Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition. Maternal and Child Nutrition 7, 6-34. [PubMed]

Baker S, Breyne C, Brown KH, Coulibaly-Zerbo F, David P, Diop M, Eijkenaar J, Fabre C, Fernandez JL, Hess SY, Hoorelbeke P, Horner A, Johnston R, Kupka R, Mulder-Sibanda M, Ndiaye B, Seidou B, Tchibindat F, Teixeira S, Wuehler SE (2011) The way forward: Repositioning children’s right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel. Maternal and Child Nutrition 7, 182-185. [PubMed]

Ba Lo N, Aaron GJ, Hess SY, Idohou Dossou N, Guiro AT, Wade S, Brown KH (2011) Plasma zinc concentration responds to short-term zinc supplementation but not zinc fortification in young children in Senegal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed]

Aaron GJ, Ba Lo N, Hess SY, Guiro AT, Wade S, Brown KH (2011) Plasma zinc concentration increases within 2-weeks in healthy Senegalese men given liquid supplemental zinc, but not zinc-fortified wheat bread. Journal of Nutrition, May 11. [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed]

Gibbs M, Bailey KB, Lander RD, Fahmida U, Perlas L,  Hess SY, Loechl CU, Winichagoon P, Gibson RS (2011) The adequacy of micronutrient concentrations of manufactured complementary foods for low-income countries. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24, 418-426.

Wessells KR, Jorgensen J, Hess SY, Woodhouse L, Peerson JM, Brown KH (2010) The effects of initiation and discontinuation of short term zinc supplementation on the magnitude and velocity of change in plasma zinc concentrations. Journal of Nutrition 140, 2128-2133. [PubMed]

Hess SY (2010) The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: The evidence from human studies. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 24, 117-132. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Lönnerdal B, Hotz C, Rivera JA, Brown KH (2009) Recent advances in knowledge on zinc nutrition and human health. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30, S5-11. [PubMed]

Brown KH, Peerson JM, Baker S, Hess SY (2009) Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, pre-schoolers, and older pre-pubertal children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30, S12-40. [PubMed]

Hess SY, King JC (2009) Effects of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy and lactation outcomes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30, S60-78. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Brown KH (2009) Impact of zinc fortification on zinc nutrition. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30, S79-107. [PubMed]

Brown KH, Hess SY, Boy E, Gibson R, Horton S, Osendarp S, Sempertegui F, Shrimpton R, Rudan I (2008) Setting priorities for zinc-related health research to reduce children’s disease burden worldwide: an application of the CHNRI research priority-setting method. Public Health Nutrition 12, 389-396. [PubMed]

Semba RD, de Pee S, Hess SY, Sun K, Sari M, Bloem MW (2008) Child malnutrition and mortality among families not utilizing adequately iodized salt in Indonesia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, 438-444. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Peerson JM, King J, Brown KH (2007) Use of serum zinc concentration as an indicator of population zinc status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 28, S403-S429. [PubMed]

Brown KH, Wessells KR, Hess SY (2007) Zinc bioavailability from zinc-fortified foods. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 77, 174-181. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Winichagoon P, Gowachirapant S, Hess SY, Harrington M, Chavasit V, Lynch SR, Hurrell RF (2005) A comparison of the efficacy of wheat-based snacks fortified with ferrous sulphate, electrolytic iron, or hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial in Thai women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82, 1276-1282. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L (2005) High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, 840-844. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Molinari L, Staubli-Asobayire F, Hess SY, Chaouki N, Adou P, Hurrell RF (2005) Serum transferrin receptor and zinc protoporphyrin as indicators of iron status in African children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, 615-623. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB (2004) The effect of micronutrient deficiencies on iodine nutrition and thyroid metabolism. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 74, 103-115. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Hess SY, Molenari L, de Benoist B, Delange F, Braverman L, Fujieda K, Ito Y, Jooste PL, Moosa K, Pearce EN, Pretell EA, Shishiba Y (2004) New reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound in iodine-sufficient schoolchildren: A WHO/NHD IDD Study Group Report. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 231-237. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Hess SY, Adou P, Torresani T, Wegmüller R, Hurrell RF (2003) Thyroid size and goiter prevalence after introduction of iodized salt: a 5-y prospective study in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 663-667. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Adou P, Torresani T, Hurrell RF (2002) Treatment of iron deficiency in goitrous children improves the efficacy of iodized salt in Côte d'Ivoire. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75, 743-748. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Arnold M, Langhans W, Hurrell RF (2002) Iron deficiency anemia reduces thyroid peroxidase activity in rats. Journal of Nutrition 132, 1951-1955. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Torresani T, Bürgi H, Hurrell RF (2001) Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 162-166. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Brogli S, Hurrell RF (2001) A national survey of iron and folate status in pregnant women in Switzerland. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 71, 268-273. [PubMed]

Zimmermann MB, Molinari L, Spehl M, Weidinger-Toth J, Podoba J, Hess S, Delange F (2001) Toward a consensus on reference values for thyroid volume in iodine-replete schoolchildren: results of a workshop on inter-observer and inter-equipment variation in sonographic measurement of thyroid volume. European Journal of Endocrinology 144, 213-220.

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB (2000) Thyroid volumes in a national sample of iodine-sufficient Swiss school children: comparison with the World Health Organization/International Council for the control of iodine deficiency disorders normative thyroid volume criteria. European Journal of Endocrinology 142, 599-603. [PubMed]

Zimmermann M, Saad A, Hess S, Torresani T, Chaouki N (2000) Thyroid ultrasound compared with World Health Organization 1960 and 1994 palpation criteria for determination of goiter prevalence in regions of mild and severe iodine deficiency. European Journal of Endocrinology 143, 727-731. [PubMed]

Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Staubli-Asobayire F, Tebi A, Hurrell RF (1999) An evaluation of salt intake and iodine nutrition in a rural and urban area of the Côte d'Ivoire. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 680-686. [PubMed]